Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10

Sekcia: Hardware a Drivery 21.10.2007 | 18:20
Avatar Lubo FC8, Ubuntu, Solaris 10/u8  Používateľ
Zdravim! Mam problem s instalaciou Kubuntu 7.10 na moj notebook. Cela instalacia sa skonci v ciernej obrazovke. Skusal som aj instalaciu cez safemod no a tam sice X-si nabehnu asi na 10s stym ze sa objavy sipka a vyzera to ako by to chcelo nieco nacitat no potom ma to hodi rovno do promptu. Kubuntu 6.10 mi ide v pohodicke a na nom aj fachcim teraz ale chcel som uz konecne preinstalovat comp a vyhodit winshit kompletne. Este by som snad dodal : Fujitsu Siemens Amilo L7300, grafika: VIA Technologies, Inc. S3 Unichrome Pro VGA Adapter. Dakujem.
    • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 21.10.2007 | 22:48
      Avatar Jaroslav Bernát BackTrack 3  Používateľ
      skús sa pohrať s rozlíšením pri inštalacií
      ked nevieš, tak nefušuj
      • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 21.10.2007 | 23:24
        Avatar Lubo FC8, Ubuntu, Solaris 10/u8  Používateľ
        Ako mozem toto rozlisenie zmenit? Da sa to spravit uz v tych parametroch s ktorymi to live dvd nabootuje?
        • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 21.10.2007 | 23:30
          Avatar Jaroslav Bernát BackTrack 3  Používateľ
          jop, v úvodom menu pre boot
          ked nevieš, tak nefušuj
          • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 21.10.2007 | 23:35
            Avatar Lubo FC8, Ubuntu, Solaris 10/u8  Používateľ
            no skusal som do na default a na 1024x768 ale stale nic...
            Btw. je aj taka moznost zeby som ako parameter zadal forcevia nie ako je to tam teraz forcevesa... a popripade ako by sa dalo to rozlisenie zmenit priamo nejakym parametrom?
            • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 22.10.2007 | 00:41
              Avatar Jaroslav Bernát BackTrack 3  Používateľ
              neviem s kubuntu nemám skúsenosti, skús v helpoch (ak tam sú) pohladať zmenu bootovacieho 2D drivera
              ked nevieš, tak nefušuj
              • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 25.10.2007 | 14:43
                Avatar Stanislav Hoferek Greenie, Manjaro, Q4OS, Lubuntu  Používateľ
                prave pri tvorbe greenie nieco take pridavam...

                skus nabootovat, daj F6, a vyhod posledne dva slova. quiet a este nieco

                na ich miesto skus napisat toto:
                vga=788

                malo by to pustit v 256 farbach v 800x600. daj vediet ako si dopadol :)
                • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 25.10.2007 | 15:02
                  Avatar mmatko debian 8 64bit  Používateľ
                  boot param vga je na setup framebufferu, nie X-iek
                  man cokolvek vs. sedativa (1:0)
                  • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 25.10.2007 | 16:28
                    Avatar Stanislav Hoferek Greenie, Manjaro, Q4OS, Lubuntu  Používateľ
                    LABEL live
                    menu label ^Start or install Greenie
                    kernel /casper/vmlinuz
                    append file=/cdrom/preseed/ubuntu.seed boot=casper initrd=/casper/initrd.gz quiet splash --


                    ako do tohoto pridat spustenie v 800x600 256 farieb?

                    mozno pomoze tento odkaz:
                    http://www.mepis.org/node/2992
                    • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 25.10.2007 | 16:56
                      Avatar mmatko debian 8 64bit  Používateľ
                      The vga= setting only effects the frame buffer, not X (unless you're using the fbdev driver in X). This'll mean that your console will display at this resolution.

                      nerozumiem otazke - spustenie pri nainstalovanom systeme: do menu.lst das ako boot parameter 'vga=xxx' podla poziadavky a tabulky v tvojom odkaze... pri starte live neviem - ale tam to volis cez menu
                      man cokolvek vs. sedativa (1:0)
                    • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 25.10.2007 | 17:07
                      Avatar mmatko debian 8 64bit  Používateľ
                      kernel /casper/vmlinuz vga=773 ...
                      man cokolvek vs. sedativa (1:0)
                      • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 25.10.2007 | 17:21
                        Avatar mmatko debian 8 64bit  Používateľ
                        sorry, 771, samozr...
                        man cokolvek vs. sedativa (1:0)
                • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 27.10.2007 | 18:14
                  Avatar Lubo FC8, Ubuntu, Solaris 10/u8  Používateľ
                  Posledne som to skusal s tymito parametrami:

                  BOOT_IMAGE=/casper/vmlinuz expert file=/cdrom/preseed/kubuntu.seed boot=casper xforcevesa initrd=/casper/initrd.gz quiet splash -- vga771 noapic nolapic acpi=off
    • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 21.10.2007 | 23:01
      Avatar boko SUSE11.1 64b  Používateľ
      Nebude to daco s dajakym compizom ci takym dacim? Teda neviem ci to hned nenahadzuje. Rozhodne by som si ale pozrel ako je to s tvojou grafikou a xorg.conf na nete.
      • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 21.10.2007 | 23:29
        Avatar Lubo FC8, Ubuntu, Solaris 10/u8  Používateľ
        V xorg.conf pod Kubuntu 6.10 pouzivam driver "via" ktory ide uplne perfektne. Zistoval som aky driver je standardne na live dvd v xorg.conf a je tam "vesa". Skusal som zmenit ten config file pricom som tam prepisal vesa na via no aj tak mi po startx X-si nenabehli. Ostalo to vysiet iba v ciernej obrazovke a nevedel som sa ani nazad do konzoly switchnut.
        • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 21.10.2007 | 23:48
          Avatar boko SUSE11.1 64b  Používateľ
          Troska som hladal na nete a nasiel som len taketo daco.

          I can confirm the same beaviour here (acer 1362LMI + ubuntu dapper beta): when X starts, it freezes the laptop.

          Na tejto linke
          https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/xserver-xorg-driver-via/+bug/32822

          Ale akosi ako sa to vyriesilo tak to neviem :)
          Snad pomoze dakto, alebo skusim pozriet ked budem mat viac casu.
        • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 22.10.2007 | 00:01
          Avatar boko SUSE11.1 64b  Používateľ
          No tak som nasiel aj daco ine. Dokonca sa podobne daco uz riesilo aj tu na forume.
          Skus ist podla tohto.
          https://help.ubuntu.com/community/OpenChrome
          • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 23.10.2007 | 00:21
            Avatar Lubo FC8, Ubuntu, Solaris 10/u8  Používateľ
            No nic s toho mi zatial nepomohlo...
            Ale aspon som si vypisal errory s kdm.log

            (EE) AIGLX: screen 0 is not DRI capable

            a Xorg.0.log

            (EE) VESA(0) Unable to estimate virtual size
            a na dalsom riadku je virtual size 1600x1200

            No som s toho blby skuste poradit co stym...
            • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 23.10.2007 | 13:25
              Avatar boko SUSE11.1 64b  Používateľ
              Hod sem vypis xorg.conf , to bude asi najjednoduchsie.
              • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 24.10.2007 | 23:06
                Avatar Lubo FC8, Ubuntu, Solaris 10/u8  Používateľ
                Takze tu je xorg.cfg bez toho zakmentovaneho zaciatku.

                Section "Files"
                EndSection

                Section "InputDevice"
                Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
                Driver "kbd"
                Option "CoreKeyboard"
                Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
                Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
                Option "XkbLayout" "us"
                EndSection

                Section "InputDevice"
                Identifier "Configured Mouse"
                Driver "mouse"
                Option "CorePointer"
                Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
                Option "Protocol" "ImPS/2"
                Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
                Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
                EndSection

                Section "InputDevice"
                Identifier "Synaptics Touchpad"
                Driver "synaptics"
                Option "SendCoreEvents" "true"
                Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"
                Option "Protocol" "auto-dev"
                Option "HorizEdgeScroll" "0"
                EndSection

                Section "InputDevice"
                Driver "wacom"
                Identifier "stylus"
                Option "Device" "/dev/input/wacom"
                Option "Type" "stylus"
                Option "ForceDevice" "ISDV4" # Tablet PC ONLY
                EndSection

                Section "InputDevice"
                Driver "wacom"
                Identifier "eraser"
                Option "Device" "/dev/input/wacom"
                Option "Type" "eraser"
                Option "ForceDevice" "ISDV4" # Tablet PC ONLY
                EndSection

                Section "InputDevice"
                Driver "wacom"
                Identifier "cursor"
                Option "Device" "/dev/input/wacom"
                Option "Type" "cursor"
                Option "ForceDevice" "ISDV4" # Tablet PC ONLY
                EndSection

                Section "Device"
                Identifier "Generic Video Card"
                Driver "vesa"
                BusID "PCI:1:0:0"
                EndSection

                Section "Monitor"
                Identifier "Generic Monitor"
                Option "DPMS"
                HorizSync 30-70
                VertRefresh 50-160
                EndSection

                Section "Screen"
                Identifier "Default Screen"
                Device "Generic Video Card"
                Monitor "Generic Monitor"
                DefaultDepth 24
                EndSection

                Section "ServerLayout"
                Identifier "Default Layout"
                Screen "Default Screen"
                InputDevice "Generic Keyboard"
                InputDevice "Configured Mouse"

                # Uncomment if you have a wacom tablet
                # InputDevice "stylus" "SendCoreEvents"
                # InputDevice "cursor" "SendCoreEvents"
                # InputDevice "eraser" "SendCoreEvents"
                InputDevice "Synaptics Touchpad"
                EndSection
                • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 25.10.2007 | 11:16
                  Avatar boko SUSE11.1 64b  Používateľ
                  Vyskusaj ist podla tej stranky na nainstalovanie toho openchrome, Ak to nepomoze tak potom uz ani ja neviem
                • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 25.10.2007 | 13:52
                  Avatar mmatko debian 8 64bit  Používateľ
                  kde mas rozlisenie (sorry, ak som slepy...)?
                  nechyba ti v sekci screen taketo (?):
                  SubSection "Display"
                  Depth 24
                  Modes "1280x1024_75.00"
                  EndSubSection

                  a modeline si dopocitas podla maualu
                  man cokolvek vs. sedativa (1:0)
                  • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 25.10.2007 | 16:15
                    Avatar mmatko debian 8 64bit  Používateľ
                    zabralo / nezabralo?
                    man cokolvek vs. sedativa (1:0)
            • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 23.10.2007 | 14:05
              Avatar mmatko debian 8 64bit  Používateľ
              skus si okomentovat celu 'Section "DRI"'

              (ak nie je)
              man cokolvek vs. sedativa (1:0)
              • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 25.10.2007 | 00:20
                Avatar Lubo FC8, Ubuntu, Solaris 10/u8  Používateľ
                Nieje co komentovat... vyssie je xorg.conf ktory sa vytvory po boot-e.
                Btw skusal som bootovat s parametrami ako vga=771 noapic nolapic acpioff irqpoll ale vzdy to dopadne rovnako... A este som skusal tartnut Xsi s konzoly potom co som prekopiroval xorg.conf zo 6.10 ktory je funkcny.

                Pomaly mi dochadzaju napady...
    • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 25.10.2007 | 17:51
      Avatar georw Ubuntu 12.04  Používateľ
      skus sem este hodit, potom co to padne pri nainstalovanom 7.10:
      /var/log/xorg.0.log
      dmesg > dmesg.txt
      
      • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 27.10.2007 | 18:09
        Avatar Lubo FC8, Ubuntu, Solaris 10/u8  Používateľ
        Tuna je koniec s Xorg.0.log:
        (II) Loading local sub module "GLcore"
        (II) LoadModule: "GLcore"
        (II) Loading /usr/lib/xorg/modules/extensions//libGLcore.so
        (II) Module GLcore: vendor="X.Org Foundation"
        compiled for 1.3.0, module version = 1.0.0
        ABI class: X.Org Server Extension, version 0.3
        (II) GLX: Initialized MESA-PROXY GL provider for screen 0
        (**) Option "CoreKeyboard"
        (**) Generic Keyboard: Core Keyboard
        (**) Option "Protocol" "standard"
        (**) Generic Keyboard: Protocol: standard
        (**) Option "AutoRepeat" "500 30"
        (**) Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
        (**) Generic Keyboard: XkbRules: "xorg"
        (**) Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
        (**) Generic Keyboard: XkbModel: "pc105"
        (**) Option "XkbLayout" "us"
        (**) Generic Keyboard: XkbLayout: "us"
        (**) Option "CustomKeycodes" "off"
        (**) Generic Keyboard: CustomKeycodes disabled
        (**) Option "Protocol" "ImPS/2"
        (**) Configured Mouse: Device: "/dev/input/mice"
        (**) Configured Mouse: Protocol: "ImPS/2"
        (**) Option "CorePointer"
        (**) Configured Mouse: Core Pointer
        (**) Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
        (**) Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
        (**) Configured Mouse: Emulate3Buttons, Emulate3Timeout: 50
        (**) Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
        (**) Configured Mouse: ZAxisMapping: buttons 4 and 5
        (**) Configured Mouse: Buttons: 9
        (**) Configured Mouse: Sensitivity: 1
        Atom 4, CARD32 4, unsigned long 4
        (II) Synaptics touchpad driver version 0.14.6 (1406)
        (--) Synaptics Touchpad auto-dev sets device to /dev/input/event5
        (**) Option "Device" "/dev/input/event5"
        (**) Option "HorizEdgeScroll" "0"
        (--) Synaptics Touchpad touchpad found
        (**) Option "SendCoreEvents" "true"
        (**) Synaptics Touchpad: always reports core events
        (II) XINPUT: Adding extended input device "Synaptics Touchpad" (type: MOUSE)
        (II) XINPUT: Adding extended input device "Configured Mouse" (type: MOUSE)
        (II) XINPUT: Adding extended input device "Generic Keyboard" (type: KEYBOARD)
        Synaptics DeviceInit called
        SynapticsCtrl called.
        (II) Configured Mouse: ps2EnableDataReporting: succeeded
        Synaptics DeviceOn called
        (--) Synaptics Touchpad auto-dev sets device to /dev/input/event5
        (**) Option "Device" "/dev/input/event5"
        (--) Synaptics Touchpad touchpad found
        Synaptics DeviceOff called
        Synaptics DeviceOff called
        (WW) Open ACPI failed (/var/run/acpid.socket) (No such file or directory)
        (II) No APM support in BIOS or kernel
        (II) Loading sub module "int10"
        (II) LoadModule: "int10"
        (II) Reloading /usr/lib/xorg/modules//libint10.so
        (II) VESA(0): initializing int10
        (II) VESA(0): Primary V_BIOS segment is: 0xc000
        (II) VESA(0): VESA BIOS detected
        (II) VESA(0): VESA VBE Version 3.0
        (II) VESA(0): VESA VBE Total Mem: 65536 kB
        (II) VESA(0): VESA VBE OEM: VIA PN800/PN880

        (II) VESA(0): VESA VBE OEM Software Rev: 1.0
        (II) VESA(0): VESA VBE OEM Vendor:
        (II) VESA(0): VESA VBE OEM Product:
        (II) VESA(0): VESA VBE OEM Product Rev:
        (==) VESA(0): Default visual is TrueColor
        (**) VESA(0): DPMS enabled
        (==) RandR enabled
        (EE) AIGLX: Screen 0 is not DRI capable
        (II) GLX: Initialized MESA-PROXY GL provider for screen 0
        Synaptics DeviceInit called
        SynapticsCtrl called.
        (II) Configured Mouse: ps2EnableDataReporting: succeeded
        Synaptics DeviceOn called
        (--) Synaptics Touchpad auto-dev sets device to /dev/input/event5
        (**) Option "Device" "/dev/input/event5"
        (--) Synaptics Touchpad touchpad found
        Synaptics DeviceOff called

      • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 27.10.2007 | 18:13
        Avatar Lubo FC8, Ubuntu, Solaris 10/u8  Používateľ
        A este koniec s dmesg:

        [ 348.875503] /build/buildd/linux-source-2.6.22-2.6.22/drivers/hid/usbhid/hid-core.c: v2.6:USB HID core driver
        [ 349.726731] hdc: PHILIPS DVD+/-RW SDVD8431, ATAPI CD/DVD-ROM drive
        [ 350.400171] ide1 at 0x170-0x177,0x376 on irq 15
        [ 350.409027] SCSI subsystem initialized
        [ 350.416080] libata version 2.21 loaded.
        [ 350.426312] hda: max request size: 512KiB
        [ 350.680432] hda: 156301488 sectors (80026 MB) w/8192KiB Cache, CHS=16383/255/63, UDMA(100)
        [ 350.680566] hda: cache flushes supported
        [ 350.680628] hda: hda1 hda2 < hda5 hda6 hda7 hda8 >
        [ 350.794767] hdc: ATAPI 63X DVD-ROM DVD-R CD-R/RW drive, 2048kB Cache, UDMA(33)
        [ 350.794781] Uniform CD-ROM driver Revision: 3.20
        [ 351.368433] kjournald starting. Commit interval 5 seconds
        [ 351.368448] EXT3-fs: mounted filesystem with ordered data mode.
        [ 351.428460] kjournald starting. Commit interval 5 seconds
        [ 351.428475] EXT3-fs: mounted filesystem with ordered data mode.
        [ 352.208992] ISO 9660 Extensions: Microsoft Joliet Level 3
        [ 352.336405] ISO 9660 Extensions: RRIP_1991A
        [ 352.572580] Registering unionfs 1.4
        [ 352.572586] unionfs: debugging is not enabled
        [ 352.584709] loop: module loaded
        [ 352.811725] squashfs: version 3.2-UBUNTU (2007/07/26) Phillip Lougher
        [ 504.543676] Linux agpgart interface v0.102 (c) Dave Jones
        [ 504.698785] agpgart: Detected VIA PM800/PN800/PM880/PN880 chipset
        [ 504.708856] agpgart: AGP aperture is 128M @ 0xd8000000
        [ 504.779523] pci_hotplug: PCI Hot Plug PCI Core version: 0.5
        [ 506.331100] shpchp: Standard Hot Plug PCI Controller Driver version: 0.4
        [ 506.725350] PCI: Enabling device 0000:00:06.0 (0010 -> 0012)
        [ 506.725367] PCI: setting IRQ 5 as level-triggered
        [ 506.725373] PCI: Assigned IRQ 5 for device 0000:00:06.0
        [ 506.725397] PCI: Sharing IRQ 5 with 0000:00:11.5
        [ 506.725401] PCI: Sharing IRQ 5 with 0000:00:11.6
        [ 507.172228] input: PC Speaker as /class/input/input3
        [ 507.441286] input: PS/2 Mouse as /class/input/input4
        [ 507.456795] input: AlpsPS/2 ALPS GlidePoint as /class/input/input5
        [ 507.498071] irda_init()
        [ 507.498091] NET: Registered protocol family 23
        [ 508.196352] ieee80211_init: failed to initialize WME (err=-17)
        [ 508.470642] iwlwifi_rc80211_simple: Unknown symbol iwlwifi_ieee80211_rate_control_unregister
        [ 508.470705] iwlwifi_rc80211_simple: Unknown symbol iwlwifi_sta_info_put
        [ 508.470757] iwlwifi_rc80211_simple: Unknown symbol iwlwifi_sta_info_get
        [ 508.470836] iwlwifi_rc80211_simple: Unknown symbol iwlwifi_ieee80211_rate_control_register
        [ 508.478691] wmaster0: Selected rate control algorithm 'simple'
        [ 509.205134] Yenta: CardBus bridge found at 0000:00:0c.0 [1734:1078]
        [ 509.205160] Yenta: Using CSCINT to route CSC interrupts to PCI
        [ 509.205163] Yenta: Routing CardBus interrupts to PCI
        [ 509.205169] Yenta TI: socket 0000:00:0c.0, mfunc 0x01021002, devctl 0x44
        [ 509.435331] Yenta: ISA IRQ mask 0x0008, PCI irq 10
        [ 509.435337] Socket status: 30000006
        [ 509.458795] PCI: Enabling device 0000:00:11.6 (0000 -> 0001)
        [ 509.458808] PCI: Found IRQ 5 for device 0000:00:11.6
        [ 509.458820] PCI: Sharing IRQ 5 with 0000:00:06.0
        [ 509.458833] PCI: Sharing IRQ 5 with 0000:00:11.5
        [ 509.458843] PCI: VIA VLink IRQ fixup for 0000:00:11.6, from 255 to 5
        [ 509.463358] PCI: Setting latency timer of device 0000:00:11.6 to 64
        [ 509.957478] cs: IO port probe 0x100-0x3af: clean.
        [ 509.959532] cs: IO port probe 0x3e0-0x4ff: clean.
        [ 509.960381] cs: IO port probe 0x820-0x8ff: clean.
        [ 509.961083] cs: IO port probe 0xc00-0xcf7: clean.
        [ 509.961928] cs: IO port probe 0xa00-0xaff: clean.
        [ 509.972646] PCI: Found IRQ 5 for device 0000:00:11.5
        [ 509.972660] PCI: Sharing IRQ 5 with 0000:00:06.0
        [ 509.972674] PCI: Sharing IRQ 5 with 0000:00:11.6
        [ 509.972682] PCI: VIA VLink IRQ fixup for 0000:00:11.5, from 255 to 5
        [ 509.972832] PCI: Setting latency timer of device 0000:00:11.5 to 64
        [ 511.654887] Adding 522072k swap on /dev/hda7. Priority:-1 extents:1 across:522072k
    • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 31.10.2007 | 12:04
      Avatar Lubo FC8, Ubuntu, Solaris 10/u8  Používateľ
      Zdravim vssetkych ktopry sa mi snazily pomoct! Po dlhych skusaniach vsetkeho mozneho a mnoho prebrowsovanych hodin po roznych forach som neprisiel na to preco to stale nejde. No dopatral som sa aspon k jednej vecy... (K)Ubuntu 7.10 je jeden velky omyl Cannonical-u!!! V dnesnej dobe by sa to nemalo stavat... Stale sa to deje v Micro$oft-e ale ze sa to zacne diat aj v Linuxovych firmach... No nic budem si musiet pockat na 8.04 a mozem len dufat ze to nebude zase len najeky chaby pokus o OS

      Dakujem vsetkym za snahu!
      • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 03.11.2007 | 15:07
        Kub   Návštevník
        ahoj,
        mel sem stejny problem. pomohla mi tato stranka:
        http://www.thinkwiki.org/wiki/Installing_Ubuntu_7.10_(Gutsy_Gibbon)_on_a_Thinkpad_T60

        v podstate jde o to, ze musis nainstalovat driver ati. a pak sputit x-ka
      • Re: Problem pri instalacii Kubuntu 7.10 03.11.2007 | 16:02
        Avatar mmatko debian 8 64bit  Používateľ
        s farebnou hlbkou v startovacom menu live si sa skusal hrat?

        mozes instalovat aj z alternate cd

        netreba hadzat flintu do zita
        man cokolvek vs. sedativa (1:0)